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Three Tier Architecture in SAP


SAP Architectural model:

This tutorial explains the architectural model of SAP. It does not gives an in-depth overview, instead it only present the layers of the software.

Often you would have seen a word R/3 attached to SAP. What does that really mean?

SAP R/3:

R- Stands for real time data processing.

3- Represent the three tier architectural model.

The three tiers are as below:

1.      Presentation layer

2.      Application layer

3.      Database layer




Presentation Layer:

As the name suggests, this layer takes care of the presentation logic. It provides the user interface to the user where user can see the screen, interacts with the screen and perform operations that’s he wanted to and sees the result. The formation of the screens and the user interfaces are taken care by this layer.


Application Layer:

This layer is used for processing the request. Say for example, when the user commands the system to perform addition operation providing two numbers then the process is executed as below.

1. The presentation layer receives the two inputs from the user and sense that the user has commanded the addition operation.

2. Since the presentation layer only take cares of presentation logic, it forwards the user input to the application layer for further processing. The application layer process these input and send it back to the presentation layer and the presentation layer displays the output.

The application layer is mainly concerned about the processing. It also communicates with the database layer when and when it is required to.


Database Layer:

Data that are created in the organization are stored permanently in the database.  This layer provides the persistent data to the application layer.

For example, if user wants to see the information of the purchase order, then the presentation layer transfers the request to the application layer. The application layer when processing the request it senses the need for the PO details which is stored in the database layer. Then it request to database layer with the details needed. The database layer processes the request and returns the data that is requested by the application layer. The application layer returns the processed data to the presentation layer and the user sees the data requested on the screen.


In earlier version there are 2 tier and single tier architectural models:

In two tier architectural model, the presentation and application layer are clubbed together in a single system.

With Single tier architectural model, all the three layers are clubbed into single system.

For more detailed information on these layers and the architecture of SAP I recommend you to go through the SAP Certification material.


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