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SAP HANA Architecture



Working of Traditional databases:

Often traditional application runs on the context of Application server. These applications use a well-defined interface such as ODBC or JDBC to communicate with the database system functioning as data source. Usually we write SQL statements to query data in the database.  The very limited function of SQL in the database, results in extensive copying of data from and to the database. Additionally the program has to go through lots of iteration to loop huge amount of data and is hard to optimize and parallelize the process.

Modern HANA Database:

The main part of SAP HANA database management system is known as Index Server. The index server contains the actual data stores and the engines for processing those data’s.



The index server processes the incoming SQL (Structured query language) / MDX (Multidimensional Expression) queries in the context of authenticated sessions and transactions through session and transaction manager.

Addition to that, SAP HANA database has its own scripting language called SQL Scripts. SQL Scripts are capable of embedding data intensive application logic in the database which eliminates the need of data movement from and to between application server and database as the application logic directly gets executed in the database server itself.  SQL Script is based on side effect free function that operates on table using SQL queries for set processing and parallelize over multiple processor.

SAP HANA also supports programs written in R language.

SQL and SQL Scripts are implemented using a built in data engines.  These data engines have access to the metadata definition such as relational tables, indexes, views and procedures. The metadata information is stored in one common Catalog from which the data engine accesses the required information.


SAP HANA framework support the installation of optimized and specialized function libraries which are tightly integrated with the data engines.

1.      SAP HANA Business function library (BFL)

2.      SAP HANA Predictive analysis library (PAL)

Persistence Layer:

Persistence layer is responsible for atomicity and durability of transactions.  It back up’s the data either periodically or after commit and ensure that the database is restored to the recent commit state after restart of server. It also ensures that the transaction is either carried out in full or nothing is happened.



Preprocessor server:

Analyzing the text data and extracting the information based on text search.

Statistics server:

The statistics server collects information about the status, performance and resource consumption of the other server in the system.  Monitoring clients such as SAP HANA (Client) studio access the statistics server to get status of various monitor alerts. Statistics server also provides the history of measurement data for further analysis.

Name Server:

Name server contains information about the topology of the SAP HANA systems. It contains information like which components are running and which data is located on which server.


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